The First Ice Making Solution Designed Specifically for Healthcare Facilities



*All italics are Origin Tech's analysis of the FDA food code as it relates to ice machines


Ice machines designed without a dustproof barrier between the condenser unit and the food zone are regulated against by the FDA Food Code. See below.  

FDA Food Code: Chapter 4


4-204.18                Condenser Unit, Separation.

If a condenser unit is an integral component of EQUIPMENT, the
condenser unit shall be separated from the FOOD and FOOD
storage space by a dustproof barrier.


Annex 3 – Public Health Reasons/Administrative Guidelines

4-204.18                 Condenser Unit, Separation.

A dust-proof barrier between a condenser and food storage areas of equipment protects food and food-contact areas from contamination by dust that is accumulated and blown about as a result of the condenser's operation.



The definition of dustproof barrier is IP 6 or "complete protection: Dust-proof. See below.


IP (Extended Environment) Ratings for Equipment

Moe Lamothe, P.Eng, M.A. Lamothe & Associates Inc.

IEC 60529, 2nd edition describes the ratings for enclosure Ingress Protection (IP) covering water, foreign objects and access to hazardous parts. The IP rating has been in use in Europe and other countries outside of North America for many years, and has just recently been added to the Canadian Electrical Code (for hazardous locations). They are similar in intent to the NEMA ratings but there is no direct relationship. These ratings are widely used on portions of enclosures and components, as well as complete enclosures.

In North America, the common practice has been to use NEMA enclosure ratings for both water and dust resistance. As the name suggests, these standards were originally developed and published by the National Electrical Manufacturer's Association (NEMA) and have been adopted by UL, CSA and other standards bodies in North America. International Standards use the IEC IP ratings instead of the NEMA ratings.

For example, 61010-1 and 60950 uses these requirements for 'Protection Against Liquids'. Typically these standards reference IP X0 where the 'X' indicates that there is no rating for entrance of objects or dust. The '0' indicates that there is no protection against water.

The IP rating is written as IP followed by the 1st and 2nd characteristics optionally followed by letter qualifiers. The qualifiers are rarely used and are beyond the scope of this article. Typical markings with their meaning:

IPX0 – Protection against entry of objects and prevention of touch not rated, no protection against entry of water. This is the most common rating.

IP2X – Protection against solid objects up to 12.5mm and accidental touch by fingers, no rating for protection against water.

IPX5/IPX7 – Dual rating indicating protection against jetting water and temporary immersion.

Cross Reference to NEMA

There is no direct relationship to these ratings but some guidance can be gained from the following table.

NEMA Rating

Equivalent IP 'Water' Rating





3, 3X


4, 4X






A common rating for outdoor equipment is IP56. The '5' for limited ingress of dust is not much of a problem but the '6' requires a well gasketed enclosure. Remember that the jet of water is 12.5mm (1/2") in dia. with sufficient volume to fill a 3.5 cu. ft. volume in one minute. It doesn't sound like much but the stream of water at 3m distance has only dropped a few centimeters. Because of the pressure it will enter enclosures that will stay dry inside even when immersed in water!

For IP ratings concerning 'Protection Against Solid Objects' and 'Protection of Persons', any lower rating than the one obtained is considered to be covered. For example, if you have a rating of 5, all ratings from 1 to 4 are also covered without additional testing. For ingress protection against water, the jetting water ratings are separate from the immersion ratings. A rating of 6 will cover you for ratings 1 to 5 but ratings of 7 or 8 are separate.

We strongly recommend that you purchase a copy of IEC 60529 if you have any equipment that needs to meet ingress protection specifications. This is particularly true for the water ingress tests.

The table on the next page summarizes the important ratings and the basic tests required.

IP Test Summary

IP (1st)

Meaning for Protection of Equipment Against Solid Objects

Tested by

(See Note)

Meaning for Protection of Persons (Protected Against Access to Hazardous Parts)

IP (2nd)

Protection Against Water with Harmful Effects

Tested by

Meaning for Protection from water


No protection


No protection


No protection




Solid objects 50mm

50mm dia. sphere applied with 50N force.

Accidental touch by back of hand


Vertically Dripping

Drip box for 10 min.

Falling drops of water, condensation


Solid objects 12.5mm

12.5mm dia. sphere applied with 30N force.

Accidental touch by fingers


Dripping - 15 tilted

Drip box, 2.5 min. per side

Direct light streams of water, up to 15° from the vertical


Solid objects 2.5mm

2.5mm dia. steel rod applied with 3N force.

Accidental touch by tool



Oscillating tube 60, 10 min., 10l/min.

Direct sprays of water, up to 60° from the vertical


Solid objects 1mm

1mm dia. steel wire applied with 1N force.

Accidental touch by small wire



Oscillating tube 180, 10 min., 10l/min.

Water sprayed from all directions, limited ingress


Dust-protected (limited ingress, no harmful deposit)

Dust chamber with or without under-pressure.

Accidental touch by small wire



6.3mm dia. nozzle from 2.5 to 3 metres distance,12.5l/min. for 3 min.

Low pressure water jets from all directions, limited ingress


Dust-tight (totally protected against dust)

Dust chamber with under-pressure.

Accidental touch by small wire


Powerful Jetting

12.5mm dia. nozzle from 2.5 to 3 metres distance,100l/min. for 3 min.

Strong jets of water, limited ingress






Temporary Immersion

Immersed in tank with water 0.15 m above top and 1 m above bottom. For 30 min.

Protected against the effects of temporary immersion in water






Continuous Immersion

Water-level and time as specified by manufacturer

Protected against the effects of continuous immersion in water

Note - For voltages not exceeding 1000Vac or 1500Vdc – no contact with hazardous parts. For higher voltages, must pass dielectric test specified for voltage.

Difference between dust tests for IP5X and IP6X

The dust test for IP5X and IP6X (dust rating of 5 and 6) is conducted in a dust chamber for 8 hours, with talcum powder (2kg per cubic metre of the test chamber) circulating, so it continually falls down onto the equipment under test. IP5X testing may be conducted either with or without underpressure - depending on the equipment category (see below). IP6X is tested with underpressure, regardless of the equipment category.


The following is a description of the two enclosure categories:

Category 1 Enclosures - Enclosures where the normal working cycle of the equipment causes reductions in the air pressure within the enclosure below that of the surrounding air, e.g. due to thermal cycling effects - if the equipment will or may be installed near a heater (or other heat source) which will cycle the temperature of the equipment.

Category 1 equipment must be tested with underpressure - which means that the enclosure will be maintained below the surrounding atmospheric pressure by a vacuum pump for the duration of the dust test.


Category 2 Enclosures- Enclosures where no pressure difference relative to the surrounding air is present.


For IP6X testing, the equipment is assumed to be Category 1- regardless of what it actually is. A pass for this test is only if NO dust is observed inside the equipment after the test.

IP5X testing can be conducted for either Category 1 or Category 2 type enclosures. A pass for this test (regardless of which category is used) is if the powder has not accumulated in a quantity or location such that it could interfere with the correct operation of the equipment or impair safety.


The copyright for all of the text, tables and illustrations remains with M.A. Lamothe & Associates Inc. Permission is granted to print or reproduce this document provided that it properly attributed to M.A. Lamothe & Associates Inc.

Prepared May 2003




The Acceptability clause 4-205.10 is predicated on and stipulated by ANSI that they have verified that the ice machine has met the sanitation standard required by the government. An ice machine designed without a dustproof barrier does not meet that minimum standard of acceptability. See below.

FDA Food Code:    Chapter 4

Acceptability       4-205.10     Food Equipment, Certification and

FOOD EQUIPMENT that is certified or classified for sanitation by
an American National Standards Institute (ANSI)-accredited
certification program is deemed to comply with Parts 4-1 and
4-2 of this chapter.


Annex 3 – Public Health Reasons/Administrative Guidelines

Acceptability       4-205.10 Food Equipment, Certification and

Under ANSI document CA-1 ANSI Policy and Criteria for Accreditation of Certification Programs, it has been stipulated that:


"For food equipment programs, standards that establish sanitation requirements shall be specified government standards or standards that have been ratified by a public health approval step. ANSI shall verify that this requirement has been met by communicating with appropriate standards developing organizations and governmental public health

The term certified is used when an item of food equipment has been evaluated against an organization's own standard. The term classified is used when one organization evaluates an item of food equipment against a standard developed by another organization.


Automatic Ice machines designed without a dustproof barrier allow ambient air to be moved through the food zone, which is not a sanitary way to dispense ice. NSF/ANSI regulate against designing an ice machine that does not dispense ice in a sanitary manner. See below.


NSF/ANSI 12 – 2009

Automatic Ice Making Equipment


5 Design and construction


5.1 General sanitation


5.1.2 Equipment shall be designed and manufactured so that water intended for ice production may be added, processed, and/or finished, so that ice may be dispensed, removed, and/or served in a sanitary manner.




FDA Food Code

NSF Standard 12